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Direct & Indirect

Aggression Scales (DIAS)

© K. Björkqvist, K.M.J. Lagerspetz, & K. Österman, Åbo Akademi University, Finland (1992)

 

Tell us how each of your classmates acts when he/she has problems with or gets angry with another classmate.

Name of classmate ........................................

 

Answer the questions by circling the number which seems to tell about his/her behavior in the closest way.

0 = never, 1 = seldom, 2 = sometimes, 3 = quite often, 4 = very often

 

1. Hits the other one? ....................................................... 0 1 2 3 4

2. Shuts the other one out of the group? .......................... 0 1 2 3 4

3. Yells at or argues with the other one? .......................... 0 1 2 3 4

4. Becomes friends with another as a kind of revenge? .....0 1 2 3 4

5. Kicks the other one? ..................................................... 0 1 2 3 4

6. Ignores the other one? ................................................... 0 1 2 3 4

7. Insults the other one? .................................................... 0 1 2 3 4

8. Gossips about the one he/she is angry with? ................. 0 1 2 3 4

9. Trips the other one? ....................................................... 0 1 2 3 4

10. Tells bad or false stories about the other one? ............. 0 1 2 3 4

11. Says he/she is going to hurt the other one? .................. 0 1 2 3 4

12. Plans secretly to bother the other one? ........................ 0 1 2 3 4

13. Shoves the other one? .................................................. 0 1 2 3 4

14. Says bad things behind the other one’s back? ............... 0 1 2 3 4

15. Calls the other one names? ........................................... 0 1 2 3 4

16. Says to others "Let’s not be with him/her!"? ................ 0 1 2 3 4

17. Takes things from the other one? ................................. 0 1 2 3 4

18. Tells the other one’s secrets to a third person? ............. 0 1 2 3 4

19. Teases the other one? ................................................... 0 1 2 3 4

20. Writes small notes where the other one is criticized? .... 0 1 2 3 4

21. Pushes the other one down to the ground? .................... 0 1 2 3 4

22. Criticizes the other one’s hair or clothing? ..................... 0 1 2 3 4

23. Pulls at the other one? ................................................... 0 1 2 3 4

24. Tries to get others to dislike the person he/she is angry with? ... 0 1 2 3 4

 

 

Comments

DIAS measures three types of aggression: physical, verbal, and indirect. The items (with item numbers in brackets) belonging to these subscales are as follows:

Physical aggression (7 items):

(1) Hits the other one?

(5) Kicks the other one?

(9) Trips the other one?

(13) Shoves the other one?

(17) Takes things from the other one?

(21) Pushes the other one down to the ground?

(23) Pulls at the other one?

Verbal aggression (5 items):

(3) Yells at or argues with the other one?

(7) Insults the other one?

(11) Says he/she is going to hurt the other one?

(15) Calls the other one names?

(19) Teases the other one?

Indirect aggression (12 items):

(2) Shuts the other one out of the group?

(4) Becomes friends with another as a kind of revenge?

(6) Ignores the other one?

(8) Gossips about the one he/she is angry with?

(10) Tells bad or false stories about the other one?

(12) Plans secretly to bother the other one?

(14) Says bad things behind the other one’s back?

(16) Says to others "Let’s not be with him/her!"?

(18) Tells the other one’s secrets to a third person?

(20) Writes small notes where the other one is criticized?

(22) Criticizes the other one’s hair or clothing?

(24) Tries to get others to dislike the person he/she is angry with?

 

Please observe, when you use DIAS

- that you are allowed to use DIAS free of charge, for non-commercial purposes only, but proper references should be made,

- that proper references should also be made in case you use single items or parts of DIAS,

- that you require as many copies of the questionnaire per individual as there are pupils in a class,

- that children above 10 years of age are able to fill it in as a paper-and-pencil test, while younger children have to be guided and interviewed,

- that DIAS may be used in different forms and for different purposes: for peer estimations, teacher estimations, and self estimations. Our research team also has used it in a victim version, in which the items are changed as follows: (1) "Who is hit by others?", (2) "Who is shut out of the group by others?", etc.,

- that DIAS has been translated to many languages, see http://www.vasa.abo.fi/svf/up/scales.htm

-if you use DIAS, please inform us about your study and your results, so we can refer to them in the future. We especially welcome studies conducted in non-Western cultures.

-if you want reprints of articles related to DIAS (see below), please mailto: kaj.bjorkqvist@abo.fi

 

References

K. Björkqvist (1994). Sex differences in physical, verbal, and indirect aggression: A review of recent research. Sex Roles, 30, 177-188.

K. Björkqvist, an interview with, by K. Prescott (1996). Gender differences and developmental trends in aggressive behaviour. Australian Journal of Guidance and Councelling, 6, 89-93.

K. Björkqvist, K. M.J. Lagerspetz, & A. Kaukiainen (1992). Do girls manipulate and boys fight? Developmental trends in regard to direct and indirect aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 18, 117-127.

K. Björkqvist, K. Österman, & A. Kaukiainen (1992). The development of direct and indirect aggressive strategies in males and females. In K. Björkqvist & P. Niemelä (Eds.), Of mice and women: Aspects of female aggression (pp. 51-64). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

K. Björkqvist, K. Österman, & A. Kaukiainen (in press). Social intelligence - empathy = aggression? Accepted for publication in Aggression and Violent Behavior, June 17, 1997.

K. Björkqvist, K. Österman, & K. M.J. Lagerspetz (1994). Sex differences in covert aggression among adults. Aggressive Behavior, 20, 27-33.

K. Björkqvist, K. Österman, & M. Hjelt-Bäck (1994). Aggression among university employees. Aggressive Behavior, 20, 173-184.

A. Kaukiainen, K. Björkqvist, K. M. J. Lagerspetz, K. Österman, C. Salmivalli, S. Forsblom, & A. Ahlbom (in press). The relationships between social intelligence, empathy, and three types of aggression. Accepted for publication in Aggressive Behavior, December 29, 1997.

A. Kaukiainen, K. Björkqvist, K. Österman, & K. M. J. Lagerspetz, (1996). Social intelligence and empathy as antecedents of different types of aggression. In C.F. Ferris & T. Grisson (Eds.), Understanding aggressive behavior in children (pp. 364-366). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 794.

K. M.J. Lagerspetz, & K. Björkqvist (1994). Indirect aggression in boys and girls. In L. R. Huesmann (Ed.), Aggressive behavior: Current perspectives (pp. 131-150). New York: Plenum.

K. M.J. Lagerspetz, K. Björkqvist, & T. Peltonen (1988). Is indirect aggression typical of females? Gender differences in aggressiveness in 11- to 12-year-old children. Aggressive Behavior, 14, 403-414.

K. Österman, K. Björkqvist, K. M.J. Lagerspetz, A. Kaukiainen, L. R. Huesmann, & A. Fraczek (1994). Peer and self-estimated aggression and victimization in 8-year-old children from five ethnic groups. Aggressive Behavior, 20, 411-428.

K. Österman, K. Björkqvist, & K. M. J. Lagerspetz, with S. F. Landau, A. Fraczek, & C. Pastorelli (1997). Sex differences in styles of conflict resolution: A developmental and cross-cultural study with data from Finland, Israel, Italy, and Poland. In D. P. Fry, & K. Björkqvist (Eds.), Cultural variation in conflict resolution: Alternatives to violence (pp. 185-197). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.

K. Österman, K. Björkqvist, K. M. J. Lagerspetz, with A. Kaukiainen, S. F. Landau, A. Fraczek, & G.-V. Caprara, (1998). Cross-cultural evidence of female indirect aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 24, 1-8. Will be reprinted in W. E. Lesko (Ed.), Readings in social psychology: general, classic and contemporary selections (4th ed.). New York: Allyn & Bacon. Fortcoming in 1999.

K. Österman, K. Björkqvist, K. M. J. Lagerspetz, S. Charpentier, G.-V. Caprara, & C. Pastorelli (in press). Locus of control and three types of aggression. Accepted for publication in Aggressive Behavior, October 27, 1997.

 

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